The monarch is shown with her son, the Prince of Wales, grandson, the Duke of Cambridge, and great-grandson, Prince George, to mark the royal christening.
It echoes a 1894 image from the future Edward VIII’s christening, showing him with his father, grandfather and great-grandmother – George V, Edward VII and Queen Victoria.
The pictures were taken by Jason Bell.
The four official portraits were taken in the Morning Room at Clarence House following Wednesday’s ceremony at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace.
BBC royal correspondent Nicholas Witchell said the images showed the Windsor dynasty on a scale not previously seen.
The reigning monarch and three future kings will, in all probability, occupy the British throne for considerably more than 100 years.
It is the “four monarchs” photograph that can genuinely be said to have historic significance, said our correspondent.
The images were captured by Bell, who is renowned for his images of high-profile figures like Sir Paul McCartney, actress Scarlett Johansson and former England footballer David Beckham.
Prince George wears a replica of the intricate lace and satin christening gown made for Queen Victoria’s eldest daughter, Victoria, the Princess Royal, in 1841.
The sofa which the royals sat on for the pictures was designed by Thomas Chippendale and is part of a range dating from about 1773.
It is thought to have been commissioned by the Duke of Gloucester, George III’s brother.
The prince, who was born on 22 July, was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury during a private christening attended by just 22 members of the royal family.
The Cambridges broke with tradition to have their son christened at the Chapel Royal, where the coffin of the duke’s mother, Princess Diana, lay before her funeral.
The Queen, Charles and William were all christened at Buckingham Palace.
Following the ceremony, the Queen told guests at Buckingham Palace how much she had enjoyed the ceremony. While the duchess said he had been a “good boy”, as she attended a reception and dinner at the Kensington Palace State Apartments.
The godparents, announced ahead of the christening, are Oliver Baker, Emilia Jardine-Paterson, Earl Grosvenor, Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton, Julia Samuel, William van Cutsem and Zara Tindall.
Mrs Tindall is Prince William’s cousin, while the other six godparents are all friends of the royal couple.