Barath suffered a hamstring injury during the first ODI in Mirpur and played no further part in the three-match series, which West Indies won 2-1. He will remain with the team in Bangladesh and continue his rehabilitation.
Simmons was in impressive form during the limited-overs leg of the tour, scoring 202 runs in two ODIs and 23 in the Twenty20. He did not play the final ODI in Chittagong because of a minor back problem.
The first Test against Bangladesh begins in Chittagong on October 21.
Squad: Darren Sammy (capt), Carlton Baugh, Devendra Bishoo, Kraigg Brathwaite, Darren Bravo, Shivnarine Chanderpaul, Fidel Edwards, Kirk Edwards, Keiran Powell, Denesh Ramdin, Ravi Rampaul, Kemar Roach, Marlon Samuels, Shane Shillingford, Lendl Simmons.