The Mi-8 transporter was brought down by rebels, Russia says, in northern Idlib province.
It was returning from delivering humanitarian aid to the besieged city of Aleppo, the defence ministry said.
It is not clear which group brought the helicopter down.
An alliance of forces, including hardline jihadist factions, is the dominant power in Idlib.
Jabhat Fateh al-Sham – formerly known as Jabhat al-Nusra – is among those active in the province, and so-called Islamic State has vowed to carry out jihad against Russian forces.
The helicopter was carrying three crew and two officers.
Pictures on social media, purportedly of the latest Russian helicopter downing, showed burning wreckage and bodies, with armed men milling around.
Footage showed at least one body being dragged away. Another is seen apparently being trampled on.
Russia has previously, though seldom, lost aircraft since it launched operations in support of the Syrian government at the end of September 2015.
In July, two Russian pilots were killed when their helicopter was shot down east of the city of Palmyra by so-called Islamic State (IS).
Last November, the pilot of a Russian Su-24 fighter plane was killed when the aircraft was shot down by Turkey on its border with Syria.
A Russian marine sent on a mission to rescue the pilot was also killed when his helicopter was shot down.
Russia is a key backer of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and is supporting pro-government forces with air strikes on rebels.
Government forces cut off rebel-held eastern parts of Aleppo last month.
Opposition activists have dismissed as a lie Russian claims that 160 civilians had left rebel-held districts.
The United Nations has warned that basic supplies for the around a quarter of a million people who live in besieged areas will last only three weeks.
On Sunday, rebel groups south of Aleppo launched a push to try to break the siege, in what observers said was one of the biggest counter-offensives in months.