The six-time Jamaican Olympic champion crossed the line in 14.42 seconds on a four-lane track in Rio de Janeiro.
He was 0.07 seconds shy of the record he set on Manchester’s streets in 2009, with Brazil’s Bruno Lins second.
“It was my first sprint race, definitely a good start for the season,” Bolt said. “I’m looking forward to the Olympics here in 2016.”
Local hopeful Lins finished in a time of 14.91 seconds, with Ecuador’s Alex Quinones and Daniel Bailey of Antigua and Barbuda finishing third and fourth respectively.
Bolt’s agent Ricky Simms recently revealed the sprint star could appear at the London 2012 Anniversary Games in July after “positive negotiations” had taken place.
Other than the Olympics, Bolt has not raced in Britain since 2009 because of tax rules which would force him to give up a share of any appearance or prize money and a cut of any endorsements.